The demand of consumers from around the world for natural, nutritional and palatable pork meat is increasing with time. The results showed that moisture content was high in the wet samples but low in the dry samples. Seventeen amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalmine, tyrosine, threonine, valine, alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, proline and serine) were detected. 2833-2839, 17 December, 2007, Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB, ISSN 1684–5315 © 2007 Academic Journals. Amaranthus spp. Other proximate and mineral parameters were determined on dry extract basis. Keywords: Morogo, Amaranthus hybridus, Total antioxidant, Phytochemicals, Nutritional value, Leafy vegetables Introduction The global nutrition transition towards more simplified diets high in energy but poor in micronutrients and functional properties is linked with … respectively. Options Mediterraennes 19: 79-8. drought: Study of Rural Fulani, Northeastern Nigeria. The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. Total phenolic content ranged from 22639±26.0 to 28672±45.1 mg GAE/kg with Amaranthus spp. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Nwogo Ajuka Obasi. ����Ҵ����x;�o����[���)=_����R�����v�{����I��`0����^V7{�\/n����瞎��cP����?%-����MF����G�_���#ӝm�ۯ�ý��l���剚�4ou�F*���`��� �����wj�^b�yל�7- �>�ǘ�X�����|���#�E�Q��)�L������V]5�nN���\��D��T�o�F�L#0I��:�ɜ#v����qhrF9�G�R>�M�,tj���{���w�����Ŷ>�~�X̫��o�1y�C�Ck7�����g�����>��o���Vw�x� ��a^6�z�=kڻ���?���|�o>l���_a�G������o�7�-���i��:�O�|�?��ih�u�th�:m�џ�"�D. samples compared to healthy ones. Ekop AS (2007). Chemical composition of Amaranthus hybridus L. Leaves. Global J. This grain is rich in various minerals and vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, panthothenic acid, calcium, folate, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, manganese, zinc and potassium. stream (betel) is largely consumed for mastication, mouthfreshening, and medicinal purposes throughout the world. Discov. Species across the genus contain concentric rings of vascular bundles, and fix carbon efficiently with a C4 photosynthetic pathway. obtain a dried powdered sample that was used for all the analyses. The moisture, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate, energy, viscosity and water hydration capacity ranged from 2.60-740%, 9.70-27.05%, 4.25-13.00%, 1.90-2.35%, 1.31-2.65%, 52.63-74.25%, 381.25-435.72 Kcal, 201.25 - 3360.00 cps and 0.415 -1.305 ml/g respectively. Furthermore, early harvested leaves showed higher (p < 0.05) rutin, hyperoside, tryptophan, quercetin, and kaempferol rutinoside contents than late harvested leaves. Determination of che, toxicants in the seed of Indian Almond (, Nig. This study evaluated the nutritional and chemical profile of amaranth leaves harvested at days 65 and 120. 2006). The TeMV caused significant reduction in phytic acid while infection led to increases in total oxalate, soluble oxalate and hydrocyanide acid. vegetables. diethyl ether using a Soxhlet apparatus for 2 h. Ireland), as outlined in Adeyeye and Afolabi (2004). In addition, the article reports for the first time, authentic varietal differences that may assist in the botanical development of the vegetable. Orient. The results, which referred to fresh weight, emphasised the low proportion of available carbohydrates. recommended factor (2.44, 8.37 and 3.57 respectively) used in. The trace and toxic trace elements content were lower than the standard values. Innov. To the remaining. The trace elements were in safe limits, except for Mn and Pb. tryptophan, 1.35% phenylalanine, 0.7% isoleucine, 0.5% tyrosine, 1.05% methionine, 0.4% proline, 0.69% valine, 1.1% threonine, 0.4% histidine, 0.5% alanine, 1.02% glutamine, 1.6% glutamic acid, 0.7% glycine, 0.3% serine, 1% arginine, 0.1% aspartic acid, 1.23% asparagine, 0.6% lysine and 0.6% leucine. Prentices Hall, London, pp. This study analyzed macro (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P), micro (Fe, Zn, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Se, Sr, Cs), trace (Li, Be, V, Co, Ga, Ba, U), and toxic trace (As, Cd, TI, and Pb) elements of pork meat from conventional and animal welfare farms in South Korea. Pure. Samples were collected, air-dried, and milled to pass through a 1-mm sieve before analysis. Data derived from this study were analysed for ANOVA using SPSS. Costea M, Tardif FJ, 2003. of food Sci. In order to lessen this burden; protein, calorie and micronutrient deficiencies must be properly addressed for optimal growth and development to be attained. T. protein and fats (Adeyeye and Otokiti, 1999). A portion of the dry C. forda larvae was ground and labelled as Sample A. The low levels of antinutrients (phytic acid, tannic acid and oxalate) coupled with high level of zinc biovalability indicates that the studied vegetables are good dietary supplements. BASIONYM: Amaranthus incurvatus Grenier & Godron 1846. Additionally, the White variety contained the least amount of soluble carbohydrate (2.9% dry matter); lipid extracts had highest melting points (110°C), iodine value (264.7), least saponification value (112.2) and linolenic acid was the lipid of prominence. Godwin TW (ed). Leaves. The concentrations of Minerals on dry extract basis showed that Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe and Na were more concentrated in the wet sample than in the dry sample of bell pepper. Furthermore, the analyzed samples may be good sources of K (3.99-8.37 g/kg), Ca (1.86-2.88 g/kg), and Mg (0.51-1.91 g/ kg). alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutam, plants (Olaofe and Akintayo, 2000; Adeyeye, 2. Leaves are green or purple with slender stalks and are variable in size. Green amaranth (Amaranthus viridis) IMPORTANT INFORMATION : This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982). close to unity (Gull-Guerrero et al., 1998). The phytic acid content for Amaranthus spp. 8 0 obj According to Onyango (2010), improvement of ... Amaranthus dubius, and Amaranthus hybridus. For a more nutritious diet, select foods that fall on the right half of the map. incurvatus Amaranthus hybridus Linnaeus, subsp. Amaranth seeds contain significant amounts of high-quality proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals, as shown in Figure 2 & Table 1. The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. . 1961. The burden of malnutrition in Africa calls for deeper exploration of underutilized species which are rich in nutrients and have the potential to reduce food and nutrition insecurity. leaves in Mozambique. Food Chem. In order to solve malnutrition among the infants in developing countries, there is need to fortify commonly consumed low protein staple foods with inexpensive plant protein sources. J. Biotechnol. suitability as an edible vegetable or otherwise. ARTICLE HISTORY. smooth pigweed. Amaranthus hybridus can be consumed in various ways, namely made vegetables, directly consumed when raw, or made into chips. This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus) and Amaranthus The paper presents chemical data on three local varieties of Heinsia crinita, a leafy green vegetable commonly consumed in South Eastern Nigeria. The oil yield of Amaranthus hybridus seeds was 9.76 ± 0.74%. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Results on mineral content showed that G. parviflora had the highest (18.84±0.40% DW) p<0.05 mineral/ash content compared to B. pilosa (13.35±0.07% DW) and Amaranthus spp. www.nap.edu (Retriev. Tec. harvest publishers, University of Benin, Nigeria pp. 2019;124:87-93. Antioxidant capacity in mg vitamin C Equiv./g DW, ranged from 49.403±0.105 to 59.186±0.0608 with G. parviflora registering the highest value compared to the other two indigenous vegetables. Amaranth is considered one of the most commonly produced and consumed indigenous vegetables on the African continent with high nutritional potentials but yet to be fully exploited. The proximate composition (%) of the raw fruit meal showed moisture content (5.23%), ash (11.88%), fat (2.09%), fibre (10.42%), protein (9.44) and carbohydrate (66.17%) and energy value of 1362.70 Kcal/kg. belongs to Amaranthaceae family and produces a pseudo-cereal grain. These findings can thus be used to evaluate animal welfare and conventional farms pork meat quality in South Korea as well as worldwide. Vegetable Ama-ranthus can be easily distinguished by inflorescence features like mostly or exclusively axillary glomerules or short spikes (Fig. Millet grains are used in the production of traditional weaning foods, but they lack adequate nutrients. J. Agric. Amaranthus hybridus was grown as a leafy vegetables in four sites in Dar‐Es‐Salaam, Tanzania. Preliminary results toward a revision of the Amaranthus hybridus species complex (Amaranthaceae). Amaranthus hybridus is a herbal plant that is grown to be consumed leaves. Amaranthus hybridus subsp. 2007;6(24):2833. The Amaranthus species contains amaranthine, quercetin, and kaempferol glycosides .A. The virus also engendered significant reductions in the contents of Na, P, Fe, Mg, Cu and Ca with marginal reduction for K in infected samples when compared to the healthy. some edible fruits. %PDF-1.3 The analyzed Ficus polita fruits show appreciable amino acid concentration in both raw and boiled samples. ; Bangla, Sanchi, Misti,Khasia, and BARI Paan 3. two Nigerian Medical plants. Proximate Composition and Some Nutritionally Valuable Minerals of Two Varieties of Capsicum annumL. 11: 75-81. composition of four Botanical with fungitoxic, chemical and amino acid composition of some Nigerian under-utilized, utilized Ghanaian vegetables. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid dominates (11.89-12.04 and 10.11-10.61%) the amino acid profile of the sample. A strong positive correlation was observed between nutrition composition and phenolic compounds. Reco. Sida, 19:931-974. . Ngoroyemoto N, Gupta S, Kulkarni MG, Finnie JF, Van Staden J. Supercritical Carbon dioxide Extraction, (2000). Amino acid analyses shows that S.dulcificum pulp contains 8.055%, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Amaranthus species were of great importance in pre-Colombian American people’s diets and A. cruentus and A. hybridus have a high nutritional value (Fernand et Proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves. The virus caused significant reductions (p<0.05) in vitamin A (55.43%), C (43.1%), B1 (34.6%), B2 (26.6%), B6 (17.8%) and B3 (13.1%), respectively while, reduction in vitamin E was insignificant. Amaranthus hybridus L. is one of such indigenous leafy vegetables rediscovered as a promising food crop mainly due to its superior nutritional value of both seeds and leaves. Plant Foods Hum. Ficus polita fruits can be used as an energy source to curtail with the problem of deficiency in energy feedstuffs in the developing countries. The boiled samples increase the concentrations of arginine, cystine, isoleucine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan and phenylalanine (histidine, leucine, lysine, Gluatime, aspartate acid and reduced in alanine, valine, serine and proline. Vitamin C contents were high, and ranged from 457 mg kg -1 (S tenerrimus) to 779 mg kg -1 (S oleraceus). It was further noticed that consumption of amaranth grain led to greater production of milk among nursing mothers; this experience was seen as a positive contribution to food and nutrition security (Tagwira et al. Piper betleL. However, in the cherry pepper, ash and carbohydrate values were higher in the wet sample while crude protein, crude fibre and crude fat values were higher in the dry cherry pepper. Carotenoids were found in a high proportion (158 mg kg -1 ) in S oleraceus. The chemical composition in mg/100 g (DW) for alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannins, phenols, hydrocyanic acid and phytic acid were 3.54, 0.83, 1.68, 0.49, 0.35, 16.99 and 1.32, respectively. Effect of organic biostimulants on the growth and biochemical composition of Amaranthus hybridus L. South African Journal of Botany. hybridus leaves are used as an antidote for snake and scorpion bite [13,14]. These are Amaranthus blitum, A. dubius, A. caudatus, A. cruentus, A. deflexus, A. graecizans, A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus, A. thunbergii, A. tricolor and A. viridis. Soup preparation The vegetable soups were prepared traditionally (by … The reaction of amino acids profile of Amaranthus hybridus to TeMV infection revealed significance decrease in methionine (35.3%), valine (34.1%), cysteine (31.9%), arginine (26.1%), isoleucine (25.9%), glycine (22.8%), lysine (17.3%), threonine (15.0%), phenylalanine (12.1%) and leucine (11.8%). An index of mineral contents in a biota is the ash content of a sample. Leafy vegetable amaranths include the species such as A. lividus, Amaranthus tricolor, A. gangeticus, A. dubius, A.blitum and A. hybridus. statistics. Nigeria (Edeoga et al., 2005; Okwu and Josiah, endosperm of ripe coconut. Anal. Many of the local vegetable materials along the value chain for food and nutrition security: A review, NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF SOME WILD EDIBLE TUBEROUS PLANTS AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOODS Identification and conservation of the tropical edible plants in Sumatra View project Identification of indigenous fruit plants as conservation of local genetic resources in support of National Food Diversification and Security View project NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF SOME WILD EDIBLE TUBEROUS PLANTS AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOODS, Evaluation of weaning food blends from modified millet and groundnut cake flour, Proximate and phytochemical composition of selected indigenous leafy vegetables consumed in Malawi, Authentication of Leaves and Petioles of Piper betle L. Varieties via Elemental Composition and Multivariate Chemometric Analysis, Nutritional and Phenolic Profile of Early and Late Harvested Amaranth Leaves Grown Under Cultivated Conditions, Authentication of Leaves and Petioles of Piper betle L. Varieties via Elemental Composition and Multivariate Chemometric Analysis Authentication of Leaves and Petioles of Piper betle L. Varieties via Elemental Composition and Multivariate Chemometric Analysis, Nutritional properties of fonio starch–defatted moringa seed flour blends prepared at different ratios, Comparative studies of the level of toxicant in the seeds of Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond) and Coula edulis (African Walnut), A method for phytic acid determination in wheat and wheat fraction. nutritional value of both seeds and leaves (Wu et al. incurvatus (Grenier & Godron) Brenan, Watsonia 4: 268. 6 (24), pp. The chemical composition in mg/100 g (DW) for alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannins, phenols, hydrocyanic acid and phytic acid were 3.54, 0.83, 1.68, 0.49, 0.35, 16.99 and 1.32, respectively. The Proximate analysis showed the percentage moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate of the leaves as 84.48, 13.80, 17.92, 4.62, 8.61 and 52.18%, respectively while its calorific value is 268.92 Kcal/100 g. Elemental analysis in mg/100 g (DW) indicated that the leaves contained sodium (7.43), potassium (54.20), calcium (44.15), Magnesium (231.22), Iron (13.58), Zinc (3.80) and phosphorus (34.91). carpellate sepals rounded to emarginate at apex and outwardly curved (vs. A. hybridus, with carpellate sepals acute to subacute at apex and erect). Akubugwo, I. E.*, Obasi, N. A., Chinyere G. C. and Ugbogu A. E. Department of Biochemistry, Abia State Un, acids and phytochemicals and low levels of, al., 2000; Akindahunsi and Salawu, 2005; Edeog. 2014 Apr;51(4):736-42. doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0560-4. Costea M, Sanders A, Waines G, 2001. The oil yield of Amaranthus hybridus seeds was 9.76 ± 0.74%. The vitamin composition of the leaves in mg/100 g (DW) was-carotene (3.29), thiamine (2.75), riboflavin (4.24), niacin (1.54), pyridoxine (2.33), ascorbic acids (25.40) and-tocopherol (0.50). 2898.00mg/100g, 48.40mg/100g, 10.80mg/100g and 1932.00mg/100g respectively. Econ. J. Sci. Analyses of the nutritional composition of tender leaves of three species of Sonchus (S. asper L, S. oleraceus L and S. tenerrimus L) from different locations in the south east of Spain were carried out. The effect of the blend ratio was significant (P <0.05) on the ash contents of the variants in which an increase in percentage of defatted moringa seed flour led to an increase in the ash contents of the samples (Fig. The appreciable amount of carbohydrate and amino acid concentrations in both the raw and boiled fruits proteins would compliment well with feedstuffs that are low in essential amino acid and energy sources in livestock rations. Eastern Anatolia. these toxicants in the two seeds were significantly different from each other when subjected to t-test Of the three varieties studied, the White one was found to have highest protein, and organic matter, but lowest lipids, fibre and calorific value (per cent dry matter: 14.7, 96, 1.4, 12.5 and 394 kcals respectively). This studyreports the authentication ofPiper betleL. 55: 277-2, Biochemistry of plants pigments (Vol. Results of the anti-nutritional factors showed that raw Ficus polita fruits had phytate values of (1.25%), oxalate (0.38%), tannin (0.18%), saponin (6.50%) and cyanogenic glycosides (10.08 mg/100g) compared with boiled fruits which shows reduction in concentrations of tannin (50%), oxalate (28.95%), saponin (13.85%), phytate (8.80%) and glycoside (41.37%) with values of 0.09, 0.27, 5.60, 1.14 % and glycoside (5.95mg/100g), respectively. Niger. the moisture content (4.80%), crude protein (8.59%), ash (9.12%), crude fibre (9.55%), and fat (0.96%) while the carbohydrate and energy contents increased (70.85% and 1385.66Kcal/kg). Int. Afr. The Proximate analysis showed the percentage moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate 4). Acta Agric. Nutritional value of Amaranthus Authors: Mahesh Kumar Samota Amaranthus has been rediscovered as a promising food crop mainly due to its resistance to heat, drought, diseases and pests, and the high nutritional value of both seeds and leaves. J. Che. The principal component and linear discriminant analyses (PCA, LDA) explained the highest variance (99.82%, 99.00%) of the group based on toxic elements. The proximate and mineral composition were determined in two varieties of Calicum annum L. commonly found in the Nigerian markets. between protein and tannin acid. <> The focus of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of wild vegetables commonly consumed by the people of Buhera District in the Manicaland province of Zimbabwe. Seventeen amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalmine, tyrosine, threonine, valine, alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, proline and serine) were detected. Content available from Nwogo Ajuka Obasi: Content available from Eziuche Amadike Ugbogu: All content in this area was uploaded by Nwogo Ajuka Obasi on Dec 02, 2016, All content in this area was uploaded by Eziuche Amadike Ugbogu, African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. var. Samples obtained were analysed for proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate and energy) and functional properties (viscosity and water hydration capacity) using standard methods. Amaranthus hybridus . 38: 339-345. leaf. Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo, (75.0% DW) and sweet potatoes leaves (, and the physico-chemical Properties of its oil. The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. registering the highest value and G. parviflora the lowest. Higher (p < 0.05) crude protein (CP) and gross energy (GE) were observed in early harvested leaves than late harvested leaves. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts. Only red beet, Swiss chard, Amaranthus, cactus pear, pitahaya, and some tubers, and their derived products provide betalains to our diet. Pak. In the seed of the African walnut fruits, the corresponding mean concentrations were The germinated flour and steeped flour were complemented with groundnut cake flour in ratio of 1:1 in order to improve the nutrients quality of the blends. Ghana J. sci. concentration of phytic acid reported for some common fruits. These levels were far below toxic limits. The grain was a staple food of the Aztecs and an integral part of Aztec religious ceremonies. This vegetable is known as an important source of iron. J. Agric. This review therefore aims at discussing the current knowledge of the inherent potentials of grain amaranths, its current application in the food industry and proposes a framework for actions and partnerships required to scale up and improve amaranth value chain. Amino acid composition of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves. Among the elements analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission, and mass spectrometric (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) techniques, K, Fe, Mn, and Ni content were higher in animal welfare pork meat. From a nutritional point of view, betalains represent a group of phytochemicals with a restricted occurrence in the diet. The trace elements were in safe limits, except for Mn and Pb.Using multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and linear dis-criminant analyses (LDA), the variability indices were 85.5% and100%, respectively. The proximate composition, as well as the content of mineral elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn), fatty acids, vitamin C, carotenoids and oxalic acid were determined. Food Agric. %�쏢 Alkaloid, tannin and Saponin contents of. Boiling treatment reduced, Quantitative phytochemical test shows that the pulp contains 3.45% saponin, 57.01%`flavonoids, 7.12% tannin, 0.0001% alkaloids, 0.0001% glycosides, 0.0003% resins, 0.0002% terpenoids, 0.0001% steroids and 0.0003% cyanogenic glycosides.Antinutrient analyses of the pulp show 5.67% oxalate, 0.03% phytates and 0.02% hemagglutanin. Mineral element contents were similar to other green leafy vegetables. Amaranthus hybridus vegetable, ‘Egusi’ (melon seed), pepper, palm oil, onion, maggi cubes and salt used for the study were purchased from Bodija market in Ibadan, Nigeria. (Bell and Cherry Peppers). The plant has high lysine content. Flour samples were produced from germinated and steeped millet as well as groundnut cake using standard processing techniques. It can be concluded that both early and late harvested amaranth leaves are a promising source of nutrients and phenolic compounds that can help in providing new opportunities for their use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Alkaloidal concentrations appeared highest in the Black but lowest in the White variety. Costea M, Sanders A, Waines G, 2001. Nutrition. 51(27): 7913-7, He HP, Corke H, Cai JG (2003). x�՝۲$�u�þ�O�7@�nvW�����d FV�C7�l���@�5��;�-��U���U��gV�f�$��̕�V���~v3_T���O������W�}��=|y����/�9����'�����?���}}�8�u1[-��l�^��ٽ'Wo��νo�6�_��^����Q��U�~qh/��7͏7�����^�ק��lڻ��O�u���?n��N�?C��h������1��䜌+g���u-���^5���_�g�����������p���G�n������oo7Ȭ�� The closer a food is to the right edge of the map, the more essential nutrients per calorie it contains. J, maturation. ������������1�� vegetable analysis (Asibey-Berko and Tayie, 1999). European Scientific Journal August 2014 edition vol.10 PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH VALUE NON- CONVENTIONAL OIL FROM SEEDS OF AMARANTHUS HYBRIDUS LINN Chantal A. Diemeleou Lessoy T. Zoue Sebastien L. Niamke 0 0 University Félix Houphouet Boigny (UFHB), Laboratory of Biotechnology, Biosciences Faculty , Abidjan , Côte d'Ivoire … 2000). Leaves are rich in proteins and micronutrients such as iron,calcium,zinc, vitamin C and vitamin A. Results obtained revealed that the virus caused significant (p<0.05) reductions in fibre (50.9%), fat (49.7%) and protein (32.5%) in infected, The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. Flowers vary interspecifically from the presence of 3 or 5 tepals and stamens, whereas a 7-porate pollen grain structure remains consistent across the family. The ratio of Na/K in any food item is an important factor; too much Na and less K consumption contributes a high prevalence of hypertension, which controls high blood pressure and the ratio should be less than one. The concentration of phytic acid in these fruits was relatively higher than the Academic, composition and nutritional characterization of vegetable oils: Case of, Edeoga HO, Eriata DO (2001). The study results have demonstrated the significance of these indigenous vegetables in human nutrition and health for rural people in Malawi. Amaranth is a herbaceous plant or shrub that is either annual or perennial across the genus. The samples were analyzed for Ca, P, K,Mg, Na, Zn, Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Ba, Li, Be, V, Co, Ga, Se, U, Cs, As,Cd, Tl, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma–optical emissionspectrometry (ICP-OES) and ICP–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Among the macro elements, the concentrations (0.12-8.37 g/kg) arelargely type dependent and statistically different, except for Na(0.12-0.34 g/kg). In addition, late harvested leaves had higher (p < 0.05) calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents than early harvested leaves; early harvested leaves had higher (p < 0.05) threonine, lysine, and leucine contents than late harvested leaves. Comparing the nutrient and chemical constituents with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) values, the results reveal that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients, minerals, vitamins, amino acids and phytochemicals and low levels of toxicants. The peppers are good sources of calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc and iron which are important components of bone and supporting tissues, body osmotic pressure, enzymes and blood formation respectively. African Journal of Biotechnology; 6: 2833-2839. has been cited by the following article: Increases in infected samples were obtained for glutamic acid (19.8%), aspartic acid (9.5%) and proline (8.9%). reported in this study was lower than the value of 6.69 and 13.2 mg/kg reported in Nigeria for Amaranthus spinosus and A. hybridus L. (Agbaire, 2011; ... As reported in literature (Belitz, Grosch, and Schieberle 2009), these elements participate in various physiological actions in the body such as blood clotting, osmotic pressure, acid base balance, muscle contraction, bones development, enzymatic activities, and hemoglobin synthesis. Essential fatty acids of the ω13 series were highest in S oleraceus (44.97%). Moisture, calcium, iron and zinc levels were also highest in this variety (45.2% wet weight, 105.6 mg/100 g, 19.9 mg/100 g and 2.9 mg/100 g respectively) while toxic substances were minimal (total oxalate: 17.1 mg/100 g; HCN: 8.1 mg/100 g; tannins: 5.0 mg/100 g). African indigenous underutilized vegetables can play a significant role in the food security of vulnerable groups like under-five children and women in both urban and rural settings. Inst. Amaranth species that are still used as a grain are Amaranthus caudatus L., Amaranthus cruentus L., and Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. The yield of grain amaranth is comparable to rice or maize. Crude protein, fat, fibre and ash recorded ranges from 20.59 to 38.18, 5.90 to 12.73, 6.20 to 7.20 and 8.00 to 25.49%, respectively. ... concentration of phytic acid compared to G. parviflora (0.5013±0.0113) and B. pilosa (0.3264±0.0192). This work was carried out to investigate the physicochemical and nutritional properties of oil extracted from seeds of Amaranthus hybridus, an important leafy vegetable of Côte d’Ivoire. Amaranth´s nutritional composition: Amaranthus spp. Physicochemical properties of extracted oil were as follow: specific gravity (0.92 ± 0.01), refractive index (1.47 ± Amaranthus hybridus reaction to TeMV infection revealed marked reductions in the nutritional quality of the vegetable that is a major source of nutrient for both rural and urban dwellers.
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