Scale insects look more like tiny, immobile bumps growing on parts of the tree, rather than actual insects. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. They secrete a waxy protective covering over their body, which makes control difficult. For most small landscape trees and shrubs, apply these spray applications when new leaves start to expand in the spring. Yates White Oil Insecticide Concentrate Blocks the breathing pores of insects causing suffocation and rapid death. Go to the Natural Insecticides section in Yardener’s Tool Shed for details on each product. For application during the dormant season late fall through early spring, apply horticultural oil sprays at 2 to 4% mixture (5 to 10 tablespoons of oil per gallon of water). Fertilize trees and shrubs approximately mid-March along the coast or April 1st in the upstate with a slow-release tree & shrub fertilizer. Kills mosquitoes and other listed nuisance insects. Failure of contact sprays to work often results from not timing the applications to coincide with crawler activity. Danger to plant – fatal if infested These insects are more vulnerable to sprays at that particular time in their life cycle than at other periods, and that time is generally late summer. Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer. Mulch plants out as far as the drip line of the branches at 3” deep to conserve soil moisture. Easy to apply with Ortho® Dial 'N Spray® or tank sprayer. @font-face { Insecticidal soaps can be used to kill scale at the larval stage, but they are not very effective once the insects are anchored and feeding under their protective shells. New needle growth on Eastern hemlocks is sensitive to horticultural oil sprays until the needles mature. Aside from whiteflies, this insecticide can also protect your flowers, shrubs, and trees from a wide range of other common pests. Sevin® Insect Killer Ready to Use is ideal for target spot treatments of specific plants or small garden areas. It may take multiple applications to control the armored scales because of the layers of adult scales protecting each other, but the horticultural oil is the most efficient, the safest and the least harmful to beneficial insects. Copyright © 2020 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact UsHGIC@clemson.edu, Four Fragrant, Winter-blooming Woodland Shrubs, Integrated Pest Management (I.P.M.) See the product label for protective clothing and protective equipment that should be used. The test (hard covering over the adult armored scales) will often have concentric rings or over-lapping layers. However, with some scale insects there may be overlapping generations with an extended crawler emergence period. The hard scale lives and feeds under this spherical armor and does not move about the plant. In fact, treatments with imidacloprid may very well increase populations of spider mites on the plants in the summer. They can also be found in the garden at the end of spring, during summer, and in the fall. They may also have sticky sap or a black fungus on the leaves and stems. See Table 2 for examples of horticultural oils for scale control. Systemic insecticide kill insects such as aphids, whiteflies, miners, scales…on trees, flowers and shrubs, from inside the plant. If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at hgic@clemson.edu or 1-888-656-9988. Adult females are felt-like white or gray encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. GardenTech ® brand offers several products to kill scale insects by contact and keep protecting for up to three months. Table 2. Pour the measured concentrate into your sprayer, add the appropriate amount of water, and mix well. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. Do not use weed killers, such as weed and feed products, beneath the canopy of trees and shrubs, as this will add another stress factor to the plants. Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University. Spray biweekly when temperatures average 70 degrees Fahrenheit or higher and monthly in cooler weather to treat scale on sago palms. Kills bugs through contact: controversialists, mealybugs, mites, leafhopper, ellipsoids scale insects, thrips, whiteflies and other listed pests. If you need an insecticide to treat cycad scale, try horticultural oil. In most cases, they are able to move short distances (but rarely do) and produ… On new growth and in heavy infestations, the scales may be distributed more uniformly on the branch (Figs. Therefore this product is used when the bugger is chomping on the foliage. Spray the plants thoroughly, so that the oils drip or “run off” from the upper and under sides of leaves, twigs, and plant stems. Scale-damaged plants look withered and sickly. Because of their short residual, they help to conserve beneficial insect species. Although they are effective in killing the insects, they also cause great disruption in the life cycles of other "friendly" insects and mites. Plants should be kept as healthy as possible to reduce the chance of scale infestation. A more dilute spray is applied when foliage is present on some sensitive plants to not cause injury. Some soft scales may also have a hard covering present, but it will be smooth or with ridges, but no overlapping layers. sap-sucking pests. Treatment involves pouring the mixed insecticide at the base of the plant. Pyrethrin kills off insects almost instantly upon contact. Acephate (various brands) and imidacloprid (Bayer Advanced … Some armored scales damage only branches, while others infest foliage or fruits. Insecticide Active Ingredients & Products Labeled for Control of Armored Scale Insects in Residential Landscapes. Kills bugs through contact For use on vegetables, fruit trees, ornamentals, shrubs, flowers and gardens Controls Aphids, Mealybugs, Mites, Leafhoppers, Psyllids, Scale Insects, Thrips, Whiteflies and other listed pests For use indoors, outdoors and in greenhouses Among the available insecticides, the oil poses the least risk to … The nozzle allows you to select a narrow, direct stream or a wider spray pattern. It is one of the only scales known to infest crape myrtles. If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. Evergreen plants can also be treated in the fall, and the majority (approximately three fourths) of the ornamental plant hosts of armored scales identified in the last two years were evergreen plants. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 2012 | Updated: Jan 25, 2019 | Print | Download (PDF). Horticultural Oils: Horticultural oils are safe to use and are especially good choices for sensitive areas, such as where people are present soon after treatment. The crawler emergence can be monitored with double-faced tape wrapped around a branch, or by putting an infested shoot or leaf into a baggie and watch for crawler movement. One treatment will last for a year. Follow fertilizer label directions for rate. However, as with all pesticides, multiple applications may be necessary depending upon the scale species and the degree of infestation. (2.5%), Bonide All Seasons Spray Oil Concentrate (98%), Bonide Insecticidal Soap Multi-purpose Insect Control Conc. However, during high heat and humidity, coupled with drought, some trees, such as maples are sensitive to oil applications. Neem oil soap is a natural insecticide that will kill scale on contact and then repel new arrivals for about 2 weeks. Adult tea scales on lower camellia leaf surface.Clemson University – USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series. Most trees and shrubs can tolerate application of horticultural oil even during the summer months. Pyrethrum is made from chrysanthemum blossoms and is quite effective especially when applied directly to the pest. In general, avoid using contact insecticides as much as possible as they will often kill the naturally occurring enemies of scale insects. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. The liquid product is mixed with water, and slowly poured around the base of the plant. Some or all life stages of the scale may be found throughout the year (eggs, crawlers or immatures, nymphs and adults). When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. Scale insects can be divided into two groups:Armored (Hard) – Secrete a hard protective covering (1/8 inch long) over themselves, which is not attached to the body. Maintain plant vigor, but do not over-fertilize trees and shrubs, as this can lead to increased scale problems. The rate of irrigation water should be 1” per application. Use an azalea and camellia fertilizer for acid-loving plants. When the scale insects feed on the sap, they ingest the toxic insecticide and are killed. For treatment of ornamental plants (e.g., trees, shrubs, flowers), dilute between 0.125 to 1 fl. They do not secrete honeydew.Soft – Secrete a waxy film (up to 1/2 inch long) that is part of the body. If any phytotoxicity (damage) occurs on foliage with oil sprays, wait until leaf drop for additional spray applications (in the fall). To control magnolia scale successfully, you must spray the insecticide (for example, malathion or acephate) at the right time in this insect's life cycle (namely, when it is in the crawler stage). oz. Heavy scale infestations may require a follow-up spray about 5 or 6 days after each initial spray. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. The presence of crawlers can sometimes be determined by sharply tapping an infested twig on a piece of white paper. Leaves turn yellow and may drop from the plant. Most contact insecticides cannot penetrate the waxy covering on scale nymphs and adults, so the crawler stage is the only life stage that these insecticides control. Neem oil spray is an effective way to kill scale insects on plant To get rid of scale on plants, mix two teaspoons of organic neem oil and a teaspoon of Castile soap with a 1 quart (1 l) of lukewarm water. They feed by sucking sap and some can weaken host plants, many excrete a sticky substance (honeydew), which allows the growth of sooty moulds. The granular products are applied around the base of the tree or shrub and watered into the soil. A severe infestation of armored scales may weaken or kill a tree or shrub. Sevin ® Insect Killer Concentrate kills more than 500 insect pests by contact and keeps protecting for up to three months. Horticultural oils are of the highest grade and may be used on tolerant plants during the growing season, but at reduced spray concentrations. Adult scale insects are usually covered in waxy shell-like cover. Many armored scales are serious pests of ornamental shrubs, trees, groundcovers and turfgrasses in South Carolina. Scale insects are generally small (1/4 inch long or less) and often mimic various plant parts, such as bark and buds. At least three applications are needed at five- to six-week intervals. Go to the Natural Insecticides section … Pyrethrum is made from chrysanthemum blossoms and is quite effective especially when applied directly to the pest. When the scale feed on the sap, they ingest the toxic insecticide and are killed. In fact, treatments with imidacloprid may very well increase populations of spider … Backed by the Ortho® Guarantee. Any of the sprayers can be used to apply AzaMax, For more information about AzaMax go to the Yardener's Tool Shed; click here, Control Scale With Light Horticultural Oil, Light horticultural oil kills both live scale insects inside or outside their shells and it will kill their eggs. Some of the most commonly encountered arthropod pests found on plants are those that feed on plant juices, i.e. Name – Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Diaspididae Lifespan – up to a year (dormant in winter) Size – from 1/16 th to 1/4 th inch (1-5mm). Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. Wait 24 to 36 hours to make sure the … Table 1. Acephate, imidacloprid and dinotefuran are three commonly used systemic insecticides that are effective against scale. Euonymus scale on foliage.John A. Weidhass, Virginia Tech University. Yates Scale Gun A ready to use insecticide that kills scale, aphids, caterpillars, leafhoppers, mealybug, thrips, whitefly, mites, ants and sooty mould. Armored Scale Insects Identified on Landscape Plants by the Clemson University Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic in 2012 & 2013. Crawler activity often coincides with the flush of new plant growth in the spring. Soil Applied Systemic Insecticides: Although soil treatments with common products containing imidacloprid will control some tree and shrub pests, such as soft scales, aphids and white flies, these products do little to control armored scales. To reduce the chance of injury due to drought stress, water the trees or shrubs well a couple of days before spraying. Scale adults are the most noticeable stage on plants, and these may be white, gray or brown. See Table 2 for examples of contact insecticides for scale crawler control. The highly refined oil coats the insect’s breathing pores or egg shell, thereby suffocating it. Refer to the product label for guidelines on plant sensitivity and any temperature restrictions. Flip an adult scale over, and if there is a separate soft body beneath the hard shell, it is an armored scale. A sample of the infested plant material may be taken to the local Clemson Extension Service county office. Is Neem Oil Spray Safe For Blue Spruce Trees That Have Oyster Shell Scale. You do not need to use a lot. for Cabbage Looper, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program, California Red Scale & False oleander Scale, Bonide Systemic Insect Control Concentrate (9.4%), Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Insecticide Concentrate; & RTS, Bayer Advanced Carpenter Ant & Termite Killer Plus Conc. If scale insects are not controlled, death of infested plants is possible. With good spray coverage, horticultural oil sprays may kill all stages of scales that are present at the time of application, and often give good control as they kill by suffocation. White peach scale on peach limb.Eric R. Day, Virginia Tech University. Pesticides that can be applied to the soil beneath a plant and transported in the xylem sap tissue can reach pests that are otherwise hard to kill. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. This ensures that the remaining scale are more easily exposed to the product. Neem oil products work by suffocating the insect. Check plants for live scale infestations. Kills aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, mosquitoes, red spider mites and scales. Based on which insects you are trying to kill and how bad your infestation is, you will have to dilute the Talstar Professional insecticide with different amounts of water. See Table 2 for examples of soil applied products for armored scale control. The repelling effect will last for several weeks to a month depending on the weather conditions. As winters have become warmer in recent years additional insect pests may have extended their range more northward into South Carolina from Florida and coastal Georgia. Scale Insect Control. Crawlers are very small and will appear as moving specks of dust. Many sap feeding insects, like scales, don’t move around much and may be protected by wax, or by the plant itself, from insecticides … There are several natural insect repellents that often kill scale on contact before they build their hard shells early in the season, but then will create a bad taste for the critter and make it go someplace else to munch. See the Natural Repellents in Yardener's Tool Shed. Dinotefuran can be used in combination with horticultural oil sprays for improved control. Several lady beetles and wasps are important pests of scale, so reduced use of non-specific pesticides is recommended to encourage these insects. }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }, AzaMax is a natural product with a broad spectrum of pest control and broad plant applications. Pyrethrin is an insecticide that kills a wide range of insect pests including ants, mosquitoes, moths, flies and fleas. Armored scales do not produce honeydew as do soft scales. This rate would be 2½ to 5 tablespoons of oil per gallon of water. More armored scale samples on ornamentals were submitted from the coastal areas of South Carolina than from the rest of the state probably due to the milder winter weather there (see Table 1 for scale insects identified). Chemical Pine Needle Scale Control Dormant oil applied in March to early April can have some impact on the population but insecticidal soaps are even more effective. Use all neem oil products by following the instructions since, as an oil, there is greater risk of … Neem Oil Soap, Hot Pepper Wax, and Garlic Barrier all have this potential repellent capability when applied properly on the tops and the bottoms of leaves of the target plant. If additional control is needed (beyond the use of horticultural oil sprays), apply one of these products in the spring as new growth appears. AzaMax is an anti-feedant and insect growth regulator which control (kills) pests through starvation and growth disruption within two or three days. Spray all affected stems, and on both the tops and bottom of leaves. Plants under stress are more susceptible to armored scale infestations. These pests all have needlelike "piercing-sucking" mouthparts that allow them to puncture plant tissue and remove sap or cell contents. These products are typically found at landscaper supply stores. Contact Insecticides: For safety reasons, one must be very careful when spraying contact insecticides upward onto tall shrubs and trees. + Kill and control unwanted insects in ornamental and edible gardens, lawns and other areas around your home. Make sure to scrape off all the scale packets you can before you spray. It also disrupts cell membranes in the insect’s body. Water trees and shrubs as needed during periods of no rainfall, which is usually no more than weekly during the growing season and monthly during the winter. Insecticides differ in their effectiveness for certain scale types. This can be quite laborious in an outdoor garden, however. Neem oil soap is a natural insecticide that will kill scale on contact and then repel new arrivals for about 2 weeks. • Insecticidal Sprays. In general, sprays should be applied when temperatures are between 40 and 90 °F. When crushed, these scales exude pink “blood”-like liquid. Examples of sucking pests include aphids, scales, mites, leafhoppers and plant bugs. In the South where scale produce several generations over a season, periodic sprays are necessary over the whole summer. per gallon of water (3.7 – 29.5 ml per 3.75 liters). How to Treat Scales on Trees. (47%), Bonide Eight Insect Control Vegetable, Fruit & Flower Concentrate (2.5%). See Table 1 for products. If the spring foliage is not out yet on a deciduous plant, spray with a horticultural oil spray so that better coverage of the trunk and limbs is possible. If possible, time spray applications to coincide with the scale crawler stage, which is most susceptible to all insecticides. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. For information about this product go to Yardener's Tool Shed and check out. Crape myrtle bark scale is relatively easy to identify. Fill in a spray bottle, shake well, and liberally spray all … Quick scale insect facts. Tea scale injury on camellia upper leaf surface.Clemson University – USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series. Other species appear as small, white, waxy blotches or small bits of cotton on leaves and stems. It effectively kills mealybugs, scale, thrips, beetles, mole crickets, ants, termites, weevils, aphids, chinch bugs, white grubs, and much more! Spray light hort oil in the spring, when the scale nymphs (“crawlers”) are still exposed. The magnolia scale is an occasional and widely scattered pest problem in Iowa on magnolia trees and shrubs. imidacloprid, a popular systemic insecticide (discussed below), controls soft scales and certain other scales but does not control armored scales or cottony cushion scale. Identification of the scale is important as it may aid in better control. Scale insects like mealybugs are among the most common parasites on indoor plants.. From there, it will be sent to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at Clemson University for an accurate insect identification. Scale insects feeding on the plant's sap can cause stunted growth, yellowish discoloration of the foliage, branch dieback, or death of the plant. As a last resort, a much stronger azdirachtin product may help tip the scales in your favor (so to speak). Insecticidal soap, made from potassium salt of fatty acids, works by penetrating and destroying the outer shell or membrane of the insect causing it to dehydrate and die. Recommended insecticides that are available in homeowner size packaging include acephate, bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, malathion, and cyfluthrin. For more information on planting, see HGIC 1050, Choosing a Planting Location, HGIC 1052, Planting Shrubs Correctly, and HGIC 1001, Planting Trees Correctly. For new plantings, plant trees and shrubs in the proper amount of sunlight for the species, plant at the correct depth, and prepare the soil for best growth. . When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. If only a portion of the shrub is infested, prune out heavily infested shoots or limbs and promptly dispose of prunings. Horticultural Oil Precautions Test the spray on a leaf or two. Up close, CMBS is white t… Try using a product like AzaMax, which is derived from neem oil naturally, inside greenhouses or indoor growing areas. Use contact insecticides such as carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids only as a last resort in scale control. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Even better, it works against spider mites, aphids, leafhoppers… Heavily infested plants produce little new growth. font-family: "Cambria"; However, systemic products containing dinotefuran will aid in armored scale control. 4 through 6). There are more than 25 species of scale insect found in British Gardens. Soil Applied Systemic Insecticides: Although soil treatments with common products containing imidacloprid will control some tree and shrub pests, such as soft scales, aphids and white flies, these products do little to control armored scales. Insecticidal soap: contains specially selected soaps (fatty acid salts) that provide effective pest control. Adult scales may be round, pear-shaped or oyster-shell shaped, but vary somewhat depending on the species. Even when sprays are properly timed, repeated applications may be needed if crawler activity extends over time. Magnolia scales are one-half inch diameter, pink-orange to brown bumps on the undersides of the twigs. Several applications will be necessary to catch all the larvae, but these organic pesticides will not leave a … Only apply Pyrethrin in smaller, spot sprays. Twenty four different armored scales were identified on residential landscape plants. Almost 40% of the Clemson Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic sample submissions for home landscapes during 2012 and 2013 were scale insect pests, and of these, almost 90% of the species were the more difficult to control armored scales. Tall trees are difficult to treat, but smaller landscape trees and shrubs can be sprayed during the growing season with 1 to 2% horticultural oil. Can be used on ornamentals, roses, flowers, shrubs, trees, fruits, citrus, vegetables. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. Scale insects can also be controlled by a soil drench with a product containing dinotefuran. Each species has a different host range and life cycle. Armored Scales (see photo gallery) See Table 2 for examples of contact insecticides for scale crawler control. Horticultural oils kill by suffocation or after penetrating over-wintering stages of the insect. To reduce the chance of killing pollinating insects, make pesticide applications when shrubs and trees are not in bloom, and always spray in the early evening. Rubbing alcohol can kill scale insects if the infestations are light. 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Of cotton on leaves and stems if this document didn ’ t answer your questions, please contact at. Product is mixed with water, and on both the tops and bottom of leaves adult... Does not move about the plant and pest Diagnostic Clinic at Clemson University the (... And often mimic various plant parts, such as aphids, scales, mites, leafhoppers plant... Degree of infestation tolerate application of horticultural oil even during the summer months and stems when... To 5 tablespoons of oil per gallon of water kills more than 25 species of scale needed five-., a much stronger azdirachtin product may help tip the scales in your favor ( so to speak ) provide! Growth in the spring pest problem in Iowa on magnolia trees and shrubs can application! There, it is an armored scale infestations may require a follow-up spray about 5 or 6 after. There, it is one of the plant and pest Diagnostic Clinic 2012. 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