In order to rise to the great heights, a proper structural support is necessary. Overview Structural System Foundation Lateral Resisting System Loads Main Elements. The Tower pile load test supported over 6,000 tonnes (Figure 12). Ontario (Figure 14). The solid reinforced concrete raft is 3.7 meters (12 ft) thick and was poured utilizing C50 (cube strength) self consolidating concrete (SCC). Burj Khalifa is the first mega-high rise in which certain elevators are programmed to permit controlled … The Burj Tower raft is supported by 194 bored cast-in-place piles. The structure was analyzed for gravity (including P-Delta analysis), wind, and seismic loadings by ETABS version 8.4 (Figure 6). At 828 meters in height, the Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world. Torsion is the fifth mode with a period of 4.3 seconds. Phase 4: 1 Borehole with cross-hole and down-hole gophysics; depth = 140m. Since the shrinkage in concrete occurs more quickly in thinner walls or columns, the perimeter column thickness of 600mm (24") matched the typical corridor wall thickness (similar volume to surface ratios) (Figure 5) to ensure the columns and walls will generally shorten at the same rate due to concrete shrinkage. When the rebar cage was placed in the piles, special attention was paid to orient the rebar cage such that the raft bottom rebar could be threaded through the numerous pile rebar cages without interruption, which greatly simplified the raft construction. Burj Khalifa is the first mega-high rise in which certain elevators are programmed to permit controlled evacuation for certain fire or security events. At each setback, the building's width changes. Burj Khalifa. Search this site. Designers purposely shaped the structural concrete Burj Dubai - "Y" shaped in plan - to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructibility. The five (5) sets of outriggers, distributed up the building, tie all the vertical load carrying elements together, further ensuring uniform gravity stresses: hence, reducing differential creep movements. The geo-technical studies were peer reviewed by both Mr. Clyde Baker of STS Consultants, Ltd. (Chicago, IL, USA) and by Dr. Harry Poulos of Coffey Geosciences (Sydney, Australia). Each wing, with its own high-performance concrete core and perimeter columns, buttresses the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres using a hydraulic pump. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower as well as keep the structure simple and constructability. The final height of the building is 2,717 feet (828 meters). SOM applied a rigorous geometry to the tower that aligned all of the common central core and column elements. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres using a hydraulic pump. Burj Khalifa is home to 57 elevators and 8 escalators the building service/fireman’s elevator have a capacity of 5,500 kg and is the world’s tallest service elevator. These include a “sky-sourced” ventilation system, in which cool, less humid air is drawn in through the top of the building. The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings, provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the Lateral load resisting system and floor framing system are the two major components of the superstructure of the Burj Khalifa Tower and these systems are discussed below. The groundwater in which the Burj Dubai substructure is constructed is particularly severe, with chloride concentrations of up to 4.5%, and sulfates of up to 0.6%. Structural System. The concrete mix for the piles was a 60 MPa mix based on a triple blend with 25% fly ash, 7% silica fume, and a water to cement ratio of 0.32. The chloride and sulfate concentrations found in the groundwater are even higher than the concentrations in sea water. The aeroelastic and force balance studies used models mostly at 1:500 scale. 3.22 shows a typical floor plan of the tower, a buttress core system was used as the major structural system for this supertall tower. Phase I; 23 Boreholes (three with pressuremeter testing) with depths up to 90m. Structural System Brief Description 2.1. Structural System Material The tower superstructure of Burj Khalifa is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the highest point of the tower. At the top, the central core emerges and transitions to a special steel framed structure which is sculpted to form a finished spire. Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The structural system can be described as a "buttressed" core (Figures 1, 2 and 3). 2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM BRIEF DESCRIPTION 2.1 General The Burj Khalifa project is a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertainment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. Structural System Brief Description 2.1. Each wing, with its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter columns, buttresses the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. The crowning glory of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4000 tons of structural steel. The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tonnes (4,400 short tons; 3,900 long tons) of structural steel. The friction piles are supported in the naturally cemented calcisiltite conglomeritic calcisiltite fomiations developing an ultimate pile skin friction of 250 to 350 kPa (2.6 to 3.6 tons / ft ). The Dubai Municipality (DM) specifies Dubai as a UBC97 Zone 2a seismic region (with a seismic zone facior Z = 0.15 and soil profile Sc). heights periodically. This enabled construction to proceed without the normal delays associated with column transfers. The story of structural system selection and the structural system optimization is a … It consists of series high-strength reinforced concrete walls: a strong central core is connected to three building wings. Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. Each wing is also braced by a series of buttress walls which are connected by coupling beams and radiated from a central closed prismatic tube. stringent crack control design criteria, and cathodic protection system utilizing titanium mesh (Figure 13) with an impressed current. Burj Khalifa is home to 57 elevators and 8 escalators the building service/fireman’s elevator have a capacity of 5,500 kg and is the world’s tallest service elevator. In structural engineering, the tube is a system where, to resist lateral loads (wind, seismic, impact), a building is designed to act like a hollow cylinder, cantilevered perpendicular to the ground. After getting information directly of the website about the construction of Burj Khalifa, we were able to understand more about the structural system within the building. Burj Khalifa. 2. Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiralling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. At the pinnacle, the central core emerges and is sculpted to form a spire. The 280,000-square-meter skyscraper contains office, residential, and retail space, along with a Giorgio Armani hotel. Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc. To be precise, burj khalifa has no damping system like a tuned mass damper or so. Burj Khalifa structural health monitoring Strainstall completed a monitoring contract on the tallest man-made structure ever built - the Burj Khalifa Tower in Dubai. Under lateral wind loading, the building deflections are well below commonly used criteria. The center hexagonal walls are buttressed by the wing walls and hammer head walls which behave as the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the wind shears and moments. To reduce the effects of differential column shortening, due to creep, between the perimeter columns and interior walls, the perimeter columns were sized such that the self-weight gravity stress on the perimeter columns matched the stress on the interior corridor walls. This allows the construction to proceed without the normal difficulties associated with column transfers. Rising 828 meters over the desert metropolis of Dubai, the Burj Khalifa tower is the world's tallest structure. The context of the Burj Dubai being located in the city of Dubai, UAE, drove the inspiration for the building form to incorporate cultural, historical, and organic influences particular to the region. Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football (soccer) fields or 25 American football fields. The Tower foundations consist of a pile supported raft. Phase 2: 3 Boreholes drilled with cross-hole geophysics. In addition to the standard cube tests, the raft concrete was field tested prior to placement by flow table (Figure 10). Structural System Description Burj Khalifa has "refuge floors" at 25 to 30 story intervals that are more fire resistant and have separate air supplies in case of emergency. Lateral load resisting system and floor framing system are the two major components of the superstructure of the Burj Khalifa Tower and these systems are discussed below. The decision to build Burj Khalifa was based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based When the construction was at Level 135, the average foundation settlement was 30mm (1.2"). The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa began in May 2007 and was completed in September 2009. L-box, V-Box and temperature. The Burj Khalifa is designed to be the centerpiece of the large Beyond its record-breaking height, the Burj Khalifa incorporates new structural and construction efficiencies to reduce material usage and waste. The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture.According to the structural engineer, Bill Baker of SOM, the building's design incorporates cultural and historical elements particular to the region.The Y-shaped plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage, with the wings allowing maximum outward views and inward natural light.The design … of the tower structural systems, focuses on the key issues considered in construction planning of the key structural components and briefly outlines the execution of one of the most comprehensive architectural forms and structural in tall buildings. As it rises from a flat base, setbacks occur at each element in an upward spiraling pattern, reducing the tower’s mass as it reaches skyward. At 828m (2,717ft) tall, the tower has 160 floors of commercial and residential space. For a building of this height and slenderness, wind forces and the resulting motions in the upper levels become dominant factors in the structural design. Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. 2. The tower does not contain any structural transfers. Burj Khalifa uses the bundled tube design of the Willis Tower, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. The advantage of the stepping and shaping is to "confuse the wind'1. Seismic loading typically did not govern the design of the reinforced concrete Tower structure. The Burj Khalifa tower is crowned with a 4,000 tonnes structural steel telescopic spire, which houses communications equipment. To combat the wind forces and seismic forces, the engineers developed a new structural system called the buttressed core, which consists of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form the ‘Y’ shape. The concrete was also designed as a fully self consolidating concrete, incorporating a viscosity modifying admixture with a slump flow of 675 +/- 75mm to limit the possibility of defects during construction. The curtain wall of Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football (soccer) fields or 25 American football fields. General The Burj Khalifa project is a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertain-ment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. Seismic loading did govern the design of the reinforced concrete Podium buildings and the Tower structural steel spire. The central pinnacle pipe weighs 350 tonnes (390 short tons; 340 long tons) and has a height of 200 m (660 ft). Architecture. Structural System. Construction of the tower was started in 2004. The C80 concrete for the lower portion of the structure had a specified Young's Elastic Modulus of 43,800 N/mm2 (6,350ksi) at 90 days. The tower does not contain any structural transfers. Adrian Smith is the man for the structural and architectural design of Burj Khalifa. d) Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. The central core has a higher resistance towards the torsional resistance. Burj Khalifa - Major Structural System It is correct to say that nowadays the Burj Khalifa represents the concept of excellence in building design. The full 3D analysis model consisted of over 73,500 shells and 75,000 nodes. The height of the multi-use skyscraper has "comfortably" exceed the previous record holder, the 509 meter (1671 ft) tall Taipei 101. Built of reinforced concrete and clad in glass, the tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central buttressed core. General The Burj Khalifa project is a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertain-ment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. Burj Khalifa's construction will have used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel rebar, and construction will have taken 22 million man-hours. The wind vortices never get organized because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape. The Burj Khalifa is designed to be the centerpiece of the large scale Similar to Burj Khalifa, as each wing is buttressed by the other two, therefore, the stability of the structure is greatly enhanced. After getting information directly of the website about the construction of Burj Khalifa, we were able to understand more about the structural system within the building. of the tower structural systems, focuses on the key issues considered in construction planning of the key structural components and briefly outlines the execution of one of the most comprehensive architectural forms and structural in tall buildings. As with all super-tall projects, difficult structural engineering problems needed to be addressed and resolved. Due to its tubular system, proportionally only half the amount of steel was used in the construction, compared to the Empire State Building. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower as well as keep the structure simple and constructability. The potential for liquefaction was investigated based on several accepted methods; it was determined that liquefaction is not considered to have any structural implications for the deep seated Tower foundations. The C60 (cube strength) SCC concrete was placed by the tremie method utilizing polymer slurry. The Burj Khalifa is designed to be the centerpiece of the large 18 | Validating the Dynamics of the Burj Khalifa CTBUH Journal | 2011 Issue II Structural Overview The Burj Khalifa Project is the tallest structure ever built by man (see Figure 1). Photo of the Completed Burj Khalifa The structure of Burj Khalifa was designed to behave like a giant column with cross sectional shape that is a reflection of the building massing and profile. At 828 metres (2,717ft) tall, the tower has 160 floors comprising hotels, restaurants, luxury residences, offices, and the world’s highest swimming pool and outside observation deck. The wall and column sizes were optimized using virtual work .' Wind Engineering Design Burj Khalifa has got a hexagonal concrete core with an innovative system of Y-shaped buttresses which has been incorporated to give this building a stable and unique “tripod like” stance. The advantage of the tower's stepping and shaping is, in essence, to “confuse the wind.” Wind vortexes can never sufficiently coalesce because the wind encounters a different building shape at each tier. Keywords: architectural forms, Burj Khalifa, structural components, dynamic wind effects. The wall concrete specified strengths ranged from C80 to C60 cube strength and utilized Portland cement and fly ash. The three-dimensional analysis model consisted of the reinforced concrete walls, link beams, slabs, raft, piles, and the spire structural steel system. Measures implemented included specialized waterproofing systems, increased concrete cover, the addition of corrosion inhibitors to the concrete mix. Structural System The Spiraling Y shaped was utilized shape the structural core of the Burj Khalifa. Construction of the tower was started in 2004. The two wings enclose space in center to form largest atrium in the world standing about 180m height. Beyond its record-breaking height, the Burj Khalifa incorporates new structural and construction efficiencies to reduce material usage and waste. The Burj Khalifa’s structural system was cre-ated with a conscious effort to conform to and [62] Civil Engineering OCTOBER 2012 ©SOM, ALL FOUR The Burj Khalifa’s structural system was created with a conscious effort to conform to and complement current construction technology. An image of the Burj Khalifa is shown in Figure 1. The structure of Burj Khalifa was designed to behave like a giant column with cross sectional shape that is a reflection of the building massing and profile. Due to its tubular system, proportionally only half the amount of steel was used in the construction, compared to the Empire State Building. The Burj Khalifa’s lateral system is a buttressed core that is 606 meters in height. concrete and blended with structural steel. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. SOM created a simple Y-shaped plan to reduce wind forces, as well as to foster constructability. Burj Khalifa is the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 828 m (2,716.5 ft). Each wing buttresses the other through a hexagonal central core as shown in figure-2. The goal of the Burj Dubai Tower is not simply to be the world's highest building: it's to embody the world's highest aspirations. American football fields was used to reinforce the structural core of Burj Khalifa is the tallest man-made ever... 1,325 days since excavation work started in January, 2004, with the exterior of! 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